75 years ago Bobby Fisher American Chess Master, Chess World Champion.

75 years ago
Bobby Fisher American Chess Master, Chess World Champion.

GAMMA Reykjavik Open 2018 - Bobby Fischer Memorial Date 2018/03/06 to 2018/03/14

Bobby Fischer's 2789 rating in 1972 Fischer 1972 eS Élő pontszámával (2789) még ma is a FIDE-lista top 10. be lenne hunonchess

Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943 – January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion. Many consider him to be the greatest chess player of all time.

He won the World Chess Championship in 1972, defeating Boris Spassky of the USSR, in a match held in Reykjavík, Iceland. Publicized as a Cold War confrontation between the US and USSR, it attracted more worldwide interest than any chess championship before or since.

In 1975, Fischer refused to defend his title when an agreement could not be reached with FIDE, the game's international governing body, over one of the conditions for the match. Under FIDE rules, this resulted in Soviet GM Anatoly Karpov, who had won the qualifying Candidates' cycle, being named the new world champion by default.

Fischer showed great skill in chess from an early age; at 13, he won a "brilliancy" known as "The Game of the Century". At age 14, he became the US Chess Champion. At 15, Fischer became both the youngest grandmaster up to that time and the youngest candidate for the World Championship.

At age 20, Fischer won the 1963–64 U.S. Championship with 11 wins in 11 games, the only perfect score in the history of the tournament. His book My 60 Memorable Games, published in 1969, is regarded as a classic work of chess literature. Fischer won the 1970 Interzonal Tournament by a record 3½-point margin and won 20 consecutive games, including two unprecedented 6–0 sweeps in the Candidates Matches. In July 1971, he became the first official FIDE number-one-rated player.

After forfeiting his title as World Champion, Fischer became reclusive and sometimes erratic, disappearing from both competitive chess and the public eye. In 1992, he reemerged to win an unofficial rematch against Spassky. It was held in Yugoslavia, which was under a United Nations embargo at the time. His participation led to a conflict with the U.S. government, which warned Fischer that his participation in the match would violate an executive order imposing U.S. sanctions on Yugoslavia, and ultimately issued a warrant for his arrest. After that, he lived his life as an émigré. In 2004, he was arrested in Japan and held for several months for using a passport that had been revoked by the U.S. government. Eventually, he was granted an Icelandic passport and citizenship by a special act of the Icelandic Althing, allowing him to live in Iceland until his death in 2008.

Fischer made numerous lasting contributions to chess. In the 1990s, he patented a modified chess timing system that added a time increment after each move, now a standard practice in top tournament and match play. He also invented Fischerandom, a new variant of chess known today as "Chess960".

75 éve
Megszületett Bobby Fisher amerikai sakknagymester, sakkvilágbajnok.

Bobby Fischer (Chicago, 1943. március 9. – Reykjavík, 2008. január 17.) amerikai sakknagymester, sakkvilágbajnok. Teljes, eredeti neve Robert James Fischer, de a sajtó Bobby Fischernek hívta, és saját maga is ezt használta.

Az elsők között választották be 1986-ban a US Chess Hall of Fame, 2001-ben a World Chess Hall of Fame tagjai közé.

 

At the mere age of 13, the boy from Brooklyn had already become a national master and at 14 he won the adult US championship and the right to compete in the inter-zonal tournament of 1958. At the same time, Fischer left school and devoted himself to chess. Chess lovers in the Soviet Union found out about the emergence of a wunderkind across the ocean after reading Harold Norbert’s article “15 year-old Mozart of Chess” in the America Magazine.

Before the start of the inter-zonal, the wunderkind came to Moscow for two weeks, where he spent all of his time in the Central Chess Club playing blitz-matches against Muscovites. He learned Russian and followed Soviet literature. Fischer overcame the inter-zonal obstacle comfortably, splitting 5th-6th places. At the age of 15, he became the youngest grandmaster in chess history and made his debut at the candidates’ tournament.

The young grandmaster’s skill grew rapidly- he was already thinking about the match for the world championship against Botvinnik. But having won the inter-zonal tournament in Stockholm in spectacular fashion in 1962 (he overtook his opponent by 2,5 points), he stumbled at the candidates’ tournament in Curacao, where he only came fourth. Fischer complained about “Russian collusion” and stayed away from international tournaments for three years.

After returning to professional chess in 1965, he began his ascent to the summit. He had a big lead at the inter-zonal tournament in Sousse, but he quit the match under fictitious pretexts. In the next cycle, he got a grip on himself: one impressive victory followed another. In 1971, Fischer was phenomenally strong: he demonstrated spectacular preparation for debuts that was coupled with a thorough strategy, a precise calculation of variants, a filigreed technique and an unstoppable drive for battle. At the inter-zonal tournament, he won by 3,5 points and proceeded to thrash Taimanov and Larsen 6:0 at candidates’ matches. Victory against Petrosian was harder to come by- 6,5:2,5- but it set the American genius on the path to a match against Boris Spassky.

In Reykjavik in 1972, Fischer confidently defeated his opponent 12,5:8,5 and became the eleventh world champion. Alas, Robert Fischer’s career practically finished after this match. He refused to play a match against the new contender Anatoly Karpov after submitting unfulfillable demands to FIDE. Twenty years later, he played another match against Spassky, which was financed by an eccentric Yugoslav millionaire. Fischer won once again, but this was a different Fischer and different chess.

After the match, the former national hero of America could not return home- he faced a lengthy prison sentence. Fischer lived in different countries, from Hungary to the Philippines. He publicly welcomed the collapse of the Twin Towers, shocked many with an anti-Semitic interview and served in a Japanese before finally obtaining Icelandic citizenship and moving to Reykjavik. In this faraway city, where he won his greatest triumph, his life journey came to an end. He died in 17th January 2008.

The eleventh world champion left more than genius matches and a remarkable life story. He invented a new type of chess, which might replace traditional chess in the future and modern electronic clocks which are used everywhere and which carry his name.

Iceland Prime Minister Katrin Jakobsdottir and ECU President at the Reykjavik Open - Bobby Fischer Memorial and 1st European Fischer Random Cup!

Iceland Prime Minister Katrin Jakobsdottir

Katrín Jakobsdóttir (pronounced [ˈkʰaːtʰrin ˈjaːkʰɔpstouhtɪr]; born 1 February 1976) is an Icelandic politician, the Prime Minister of Iceland since November 2017 and a member of the Althing (Iceland's parliament) for the Reykjavík North constituency since 2007. She became deputy chairperson of the Left-Green Movement in 2003 and has been their chairperson since 2013. Katrín was Iceland's Minister of Education, Science and Culture and of Nordic Co-operation from 2 February 2009 to 23 May 2013.

 

GAMMA Reykjavik Open 2018 - Bobby Fischer Memorial Date 2018/03/06 to 2018/03/14

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